Autocad 2008 tutorial pdf - Free Download
Autocad Plant 3D Autocad. Autocad Civil 3d civil 3d. Autocad civil 3d tutorial. Autocad 3d Training Manual Belajar Autocad. Upute - Autocad Civil 3d. Surface modeling was developed to provide the surface information that is missing in wireframe modeling.
Essentially, defining the skin of a design creates a surface model. Although it is possible to create a surface model without using u sing a wireframe model, in most cases it is much easier to create a surface model on top of a wireframe model. In surface modeling, a wireframe model can be used to provide information about the edges and corners so that the desired faces can be easily positioned and placed.
Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that surface modelers define not only the edges of 3D objects, but also the surfaces. Surface modeling provides hiding, shading, and rendering capabilities that are not available in wireframe modeling. Surface models do not provide the physical properties that solid models provide, such as mass, weight, center of gravity, and so on.
The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a filled p olygon. The created faces of surface models are only planar, which means the surface models can only have approximate curved surfaces.
It is important to note that the AutoCAD surface modeler does not create true curved surfaces. To differentiate these two types of surfaces, faceted surfaces are called meshes in AutoCAD.
Because of the use of faceted approximation on true curved surfaces, the computer requirements of most faceted surface modelers are typically much less than that of solid modelers. Faceted surface modeling usually provides reasonably good representations of 3D d esigns with fast rendering and shading capabilities.
The three commands were developed parallel to the historical development of the different types of computer modelers. The first generation surface command available in AutoCAD. Used mostly to fill an area in the sketch plane of the current UCS. This type of surface is not a true 3D surface. This is the type of surface developed primarily for creating faceted surface models.
Creates a 2D surface of arbitrary shape from existing 2D entities. This command creates the most flexible and the most complicated type of surface available in AutoCAD. This command was developed to allow manipulation of 2D surfaces using one of the solid modeling construction techniques, namely, the Constructive Solid Geometry method. In fact, the three commands are developed for specific tasks in mind.
The 2D Solid command is mostly used in 2D drawings to create 2D filled area and the Region command is designed so that general 2D shapes can be easily transformed into solid models. The 3D Face command is the only one that is designed specifically for surface modeling and therefore it is the most suitable for such tasks. The use of the 2D Solid and Region commands in 3D surface modeling can be somewhat awkward and at times very difficult.
Note that the use of the Region command will be focused on in the solid modeling chapters of this text. As one can imagine, sketching each surface manually can be very time consuming and tedious. AutoCAD also provides additional tools for more advanced surface modeling, such as Tabulated surfaces , Ruled surfaces and Revolved surfaces. These tools are basically automated procedures, which can be used to define and create multiple copies of planar surfaces in specific directions.
The principles and concepts used b y these tools are also used in creating solid models, which are covered in chapter six through chapter eight of this text. You are encouraged to re-examine these commands after you have finished the solid modeling chapters. In this chapter, the general procedures to create surface models are illustrated. We will also demonstrate the use of the more advanced surface modeling tools. Two wireframe models, which were created in the previous chapters, will be converted into surface models.
Click on the V-block. Use the Browse option to locate the file if it is not displayed. In the pull-down menus, select: Pick the adjacent corner toward the right side of the model as shown. Place the first corner point of the 2D solid at the origin of the new UCS. Pick the bottom right corner of the inclined plane as shown.
Pick the corner directly above the origin of the UCS as shown. This seemly strange way of specifying the third corner was established when the 2D Solid command was first introduced back in the mids. Note that in the above steps, we could accept the three-sided polygon after defining the third corner. Displays the objects using lines and curves to represent the boundaries of objects created.
Linetypes and lineweights are visible with this option. Note that this is the default AutoCAD display mode. Displays the objects using the 3D lines that are located behind surfaces and solids removed.
Displays a shaded 3D user coordinate system UCS icon. Note that linetypes and lineweights are not visible with this option. Creates a shaded image of polygon faces and solids that uses the Gooch face style, a transition between cool and warm colors rather than dark to light.
The effect is less realistic, but it can make the d etails of the model easier to see. Creates a shaded image of polygon faces and solids that gives the objects a smooth and realistic appearance. There exists only one surface in our model.
The surface was created with the 2D Solid command. Observe the display of the shaded surface in contrast to the 3D wireframe edges that are located behind it. This option resets the UCS to align to the world coordinate system. On your own, reset the display to the SE Isometric View before continuing to the next section.
The 3D Face command can be used to create true 3D planar surfaces by allowing the X, Y and Z coordinates of the corners to be selected independently of the current UCS. The created polygon can be a three-sided or foursided shape. This command is the primary construction tool for surface modeling in AutoCAD. Pick the adjacent corner of the right vertical face of the model as shown.
Pick the corner below the last selected corner as shown. Pick the back corner of the model as shown. In the Visual Styles toolbar, click on the 3D Hidden icon to display the model with hidden lines removed. On your own, use the Free Orbit icon to rotate the model and examine the constructed surface model. F or surfaces of irregular shape, the Invisible Edge option is available in conjunction with the 3D Face command.
Select the 2D Wireframe in the Visual Styles toolbar. Pick the top right corner of the model as shown. Pick the top front corner of the model as shown. Pick the top corner of the model adjacent to the previously selected corner as shown. Note that the last polygon we created is a three-sided polygon.
Note that the edges of the polygons are displayed as shown. In the Visual Styles toolbar, click on the Conceptual Visual Style icon to display the shaded image of the model. In the pull-down menu, select: Pick the three edges inside the inclined surface as shown. Select one of the 3D face we created by clicking on the front edge of the inclined surface as shown.
Notice the grip editing axes is automatically aligned to the grip point. Clicking on the axis constrain the movement to the selected axis.
Press the [Esc] key to deselect the highlighted entities. Click on the New button to create new layers. Create two new layers with the following settings: Press the [ESC] key twice to deselect all highlighted entities. These commands allow us to quickly q uickly create and duplicate surfaces in specific manners. Creates a surface mesh by rotating a group of objects about an axis. Creates a surface mesh representing a general tabulated surface defined by a path curve and a direction vector.
The resulting mesh is a series of parallel polygons running along a specified path. Creates a surface mesh between two objects. Creates a surface patch mesh from four edges. These two variables are used to set the number of increments used by the Ruled Surface and Tabulated Surface commands.
The default values are set to six, which means any curve will be approximated with six straight lines. On your own, use the Free Orbit command and adjust the display of the wireframe model so that the four vertical lines connecting the two circles are visible as shown.
Select Break in the Modify toolbar. Note that we can only erase parts of a circle. We will therefore erase a portion of the circle and then split the circle into two arcs.
Autocad 2008 3D Tutorial
The effect is less realistic, but it can make the d etails of the model easier to see. Upute - Autocad Civil 3d. In fact, the three commands are developed for specific tasks in mind. This type of surface is not a true 3D surface. For open curves, AutoCAD starts construction of the ruled surface based on the locations of the specified points on the curves. In the pull-down menu, select:
This command is the primary construction tool for surface modeling in AutoCAD. The 2D Solid command is mostly used in 2D drawings to create 2D filled area and the Region command is designed so that general 2D shapes can be easily transformed into solid models. This seemly strange way of specifying the third corner was established when the 2D Solid command was first introduced back in the mids. We share information about your activities on the site with our partners and Google partners: We will next split the arc into two arcs using the Break command. Inside the graphics window, right-mouse-click once to accept the selection. It is important to note that the AutoCAD surface modeler does not create true curved surfaces. Note that the edges of the polygons are displayed as shown.
We can override the first point by choosing First point in the option menu. Pick the adjacent corner of the right vertical face of the model as shown. Pick the bottom right corner of the inclined plane as shown. The resulting mesh is a series of parallel polygons running along a specified path. Creates a surface mesh by rotating a group of objects about an axis. The 2D Solid command is mostly used in 2D drawings to create 2D filled area and the Region command is designed so that general 2D shapes can be easily transformed into solid models. Pick the corner directly above the origin of the UCS as shown. Choose the lower arc by clicking on the right side as shown. Select Break in the Modify toolbar.